Unit 2

Unit 2

Activity 1

Definition 1: Distance education is beset with a remarkable paradox—it has asserted its existence, but it cannot define itself (Shale, 1990).

Definition 2: Grenville Rumble (1989) defined distance education as a process in which there must be a teacher, one or more students; a course or curriculum that the teacher is capable of teaching and the student is trying to learn; and a contract, implicit or explicit, between the student and the teacher or the institution employing the teacher, which acknowledges their respective teaching- learning roles.

Definition 3: The U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Educational Research and Improvement (Bruder, 1989) defines distance education as “the application of telecommunications and electronic devices which enable students and learners to receive instruction that originates from some distant location.”

Definition 4: Rudolf Manfred Delling (Keegan, 1986) speaks of distance education as a teaching process “which is achieved by bridging the physical distance between student and teacher by means of at least one appropriate technical medium.”

Reference

Research, Current Practice, and HB 2128,The concept of distance education,George U. Hubbard,available in http://www.tcet.unt.edu/pubs/de/de02.pdf

by Jazmin Ivette Ramos Buelna.

Distance education: Distance education is defined, for the purposes of accreditation review, as a formal educational process in which the majority of the instruction occurs when student and instructor are not in the same place. Instruction may be synchronous or asynchronous. Distance education may employ correspondence study, or audio, video, or computer technologies.

The Commission on Colleges (2000). Distance Education: Definition and Principles. Available in: http://www.nova.edu/ocean/disted/sacs_distance.pdf

Distance Education is a term used to describe the teaching and learning process that takes place when the instructor and student are separated by place and/or time. Distance delivery methods are particularly suited to students who find it difficult to attend regular on-campus courses because of schedule conflicts, family and work responsibilities, or travel barriers. Distance Education courses carry the same academic credit and rigor as traditional on-campus classes and follow the same semester start and end times.

Lenoir community college (2010). Distance Education Student Guide. Available in: http://www.lenoircc.edu/de09/student_guide_info.htm

The California Distance Learning Project (CDLP) defines distance learning as follows. “Distance Learning (DL) is an instructional delivery system that connects learners with educational resources. DL provides educational access to learners not enrolled in educational institutions and can augment the learning opportunities of current students. The implementation of DL is a process that uses available resources and will evolve to incorporate emerging technologies.

Several key features define distance learning. The importance of the teacher — learner communications cannot be overstated.

         the separation of teacher and learner during at least a majority of each instructional process

         separation of teacher and learner in space and/or time

         the use of educational media to unite teacher and learner and carry course content

         the provision of two-way communication between teacher, tutor, or educational agency and learner, and

         control of the learning pace by the student rather than the distance instructor.

These definitions apply equally to high tech and low tech approaches to distance learning. The multiple distance learning definitions and other terminology is addressed in the tutorial.

California Distance Learning Project (2005). What Is Distance Learning?. Available in: http://www.cdlponline.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=whatis

By  Angelica Estrada Puentes

DEFINITION: Distance Education

Distance education is defined, for the purposes of accreditation review, as a formal educational process in which the majority of the instruction occurs when student and instructor are not in the same place. Instruction may be synchronous or asynchronous. Distance education may employ  correspondence study, or audio, video, or computer technologies.

The Commission on Colleges

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools

Decatur, Georgia

Distance learning, sometimes called e-learning, is a formalized teaching and learning system specifically designed to be carried out remotely by using electronic communication. Because distance learning is less expensive to support and is not constrained by geographic considerations, it offers opportunities in situations where traditional education has difficulty operating. Students with scheduling or distance problems can benefit, as can employees, because distance education can be more flexible in terms of time and can be delivered virtually anywhere.

Popular distance learning technologies include:

  • Voice-centered technology, such as CD or MP3 recordings or Webcasts
  • Video technology, such as instructional videos, DVDs, and interactive videoconferencing
  • Computer-centered technology delivered over the Internet or corporate intranet

Studies indicate that distance learning can be as effective as the traditional format when the methods are appropriate to the teaching tasks, there is student-teacher interaction, and the teachers provide students with appropriate and timely feedback.

http://searchcio-midmarket.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid183_gci509906,00.html

http://www.nova.edu/ocean/disted/sacs_distance.pdf

Distance education is oftentimes referred to as “Distance Learning” as well, and is simply defined as “a field of education focusing on the andragogy and pedagogy, instructional systems, and technology which endeavor to deliver an education to students who are not physically in a classroom or campus setting.” In its simplest terms, it means earning a degree online.

The use of electronic (i.e. computers) and printed media enable the student to pursue their education without attending classes on a college or university campus. They are enabled to communicate and study at the times they select, through various technologies that allow them to interact in real time and through many different ways using the internet.

Additionally, distance education courses do not require any physical presence on-site for reasons inclusive of taking examinations that are considered to be blended or hybrid courses of study.

David Cassell – EzineArticles.com Expert Author

educator and net marketer.

http://ezinearticles.com/?Definition-of-Distance-Education&id=1715195

By Angel Valdez

“La educación superior abierta y a distancia significa algo más que trascender los muros del aula y la automatización de procesos académicos y administrativos. Implica una propuesta educativa flexible y un modelo pertinente y de calidad para hacer posible, con el apoyo de las Tecnologías de la Información y de la Comunicación (TIC), un aprendizaje independiente y colaborativo.”
Secretaria de Educación Pública, Extraido de: http://148.247.220.7/index.php/cau/descgen.html
al 28 de febreo de 2010, última actualización: enero de 2010
“Determining the nature and purpose of distance education—and defining its appropriate role—can be difficult because it requires that institutions locate themselves in the midst of multiple issues: technological advances, pedagogical change, business model change, organizational adaptability, knowledge management, and increased access to education. Some assert that distance education represents a strategic “inflection point” for higher education, signaling the fundamental transformation of education as we know it.
If we are clear about the problem we are trying to solve and whom we wish to serve with distance education, we will be able to make better decisions regarding it. Distance education is fundamentally an education issue. Viewed in this light, it offers students and faculty an alternative to our still-rich residential tradition, one which need not threaten the current tradition but can work alongside it to broaden the number and types of people with access to an education, and thus help to serve us all.”
Diana G. Oblinger “The Nature and Purpose of Distance Education” The Technology Source, March/April 2000. Available online at http://ts.mivu.org/default.asp?show=article&id=1034
at February 28th, 2010
Teaster and Blieszner (1999) say “the term distance learning has been applied to many instructional methods: however, its primary distinction is that the teacher and the learner are separate in space and possibly time” (pg. 741)
Doug Valentine In Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume V, NumberIII, Fall 2002
State University of West Georgia, Distance Education Center

http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall53/valentine53.html

at February 28th, 2010

By Carolina Ramos Fabian

DISTANCE EDUCATION – an educational process and system in which all or a significant proportion of the teaching is carried out by someone or something removed in space and time from the learner. Distance education requires structured planning, well-designed courses special instructional techniques and methods of communication by electronic and other technology, as well as specific organizational and administrative arrangements.

DISTANCE LEARNING – a system and a process that connects learners to distributed learning resources. Distance learning can take a variety of forms, all distance learning, however, is characterized by (a) separation/distance of place and/or time between instructor and learner, amongst learners, and/or between learners and learning resources; and (b) interaction between the learner and the instructor, among learners and/or between learners and learning resources conducted through one or more media.
http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/lwf/doc/portfolio/definitions.htm

Distance education
Distance education on the other hand is less a philosophy and more a method of education. Students can study in their own time, at the place of their choice (home, work or learning centre), and without face-to-face contact with a teacher. Technology is a critical element of distance education.

Bates, A.W. (2005) Technology, e-Learning and Distance Education London/New York: RoutledgeFalmer.Available http://www.tonybates.ca/2008/07/07/what-is-distance-education/

What is e-Learning?

e-Learning is an umbrella term that describes learning done at a computer, usually connected to a network, giving us the opportunity to learn almost anytime, anywhere.

e-Learning is not unlike any other form of education – and it is widely accepted that e-Learning can be as rich and as valuable as the classroom experience or even more so. With its unique features e-Learning is an experience that leads to comprehension and mastery of new skills and knowledge, just like its traditional counterpart.

http://www.worldwidelearn.com/elearning-essentials/index.html

By Amaury Almaguer

DISTANCE LEARNING DEFINITIONS 1 “The acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated information and instruction, encompassing all technologies and other forms of learning at a distance.” USDLA 2 “Distance education is planned learning that normally occurs in a different place from teaching and as a result requires special techniques of course design, special instructional techniques, special methods of communication by electronic and other technology, as well as special organizational and administrative arrangements” by Greg Kearsley (1996) 3 “The process of extending learning, or delivering instructional resource-sharing opportunities, to locations away from a classroom, building or site, to another classroom, building or site by using video, audio, computer, multimedia communications, or some combination of these with other traditional delivery methods.” The ITC definition http://www.uwex.edu/disted/definition.cfm

By Hildeberto Josue Perez Perez

Definition 1:

The USDLA definition: “The acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated information and instruction, encompassing all technologies and other forms of learning at a distance.”

http://www.usdla.org/html/aboutUs/vmd.htm

Definition 2:

The California Distance Learning Project’s definition is: “Distance Learning (DL) is an instructional delivery system which connects learners with educational resources. DL provides educational access to learners not enrolled in educational institutions and can augment the learning opportunities of current students. The implementation of DL is a process which uses available resources and will evolve to incorporate emerging technologies.”

http://www.cdlponline.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=whatis

Definition 3:

As defined by Michael Moore, then director of The American Center for the Study of Distance Education, Penn State: “Distance education is planned learning that normally occurs in a different place from teaching and as a result requires special techniques of course design, special instructional techniques, special methods of communication by electronic and other technology, as well as special organizational and administrative arrangements”

http://www.uwex.edu/disted/definition.cfm

By Delia Yamile Marquez

concepts for Distance Education
“The process of extending learning or delivering instructional resource-sharing opportunities to
locations away from a classroom, building or site, to another classroom, building or site by using
video, audio, computer, multimedia, communications, or some combination of these with other
traditional delivery methods.”
http://144.162.197.250/definition.htm
Distance education is defined as institution-based formal education where the learning group is separated, and where interactive telecommunications systems are used to connect learners, resources, and instructors.
In a time where distance education is becoming widely utilized across the globe, this at-a-glace approach makes it easier than ever to respond to the growing demand and questions about this subject matter.
ttp://www.amazon.ca/Distance-Education-Definition-Glossary-Terms/dp/1607521385
Distance education is defined, for the purposes of accreditation review, as a formal educational
Process in which the majority of the instruction occurs when student and instructor are not in the same place. Instruction may be synchronous or asynchronous. Distance education may employ
Correspondence study, or audio, video,o r computer technologies.
http://www.nova.edu/ocean/disted/sacs_distance.pdf

By Olivia Arellano

What is Distance Learning?

Definition 1

Distance learning is the process of transferring knowledge to learners (students) who are separated from the instructor (teacher) by time and/or physical distance and are making use of technology components, such as the Internet, video, CD’s, tapes, and other forms of technology to accomplish learning.

Distance Learning Colleges Guide (2005). What is Distance Learning? Highlighting accredited online degrees and colleges. Available in http://www.distance-learning-college-guide.com/what-is-distance-learning.html

Definition 2

The terms ‘distance education’ and’ open learning’ have been used in different contexts with some what different meanings. Distance Education has been defined as an educational process in which a significant proportion of the teaching is conducted by someone removed in space and/or time from the learner. Distance Education programmes have often used a combination of educational media, old and new, varying from print to broadcasts to audio and video recordings, and included opportunities for face to face study as well as learning from recorded material.

Lajpat Nagar. (1997). Concepts of Distance Education and Open Learning. National Informatics Centre. Available in http://www.education.nic.in/cd50years/g/52/4j/524J0401.htm

Definition 3

Dohmen (1977) defines distance education as “a systematically organised form of self-study in which student counselling, the presentation of learning material and securing and supervising of students’ success is carried out by a team of teachers, each of whom has responsibilities. It is made possible at a distance by means of media which can cover long distances”.

Unit 1 Distance Education: Concept and Scope. Available in http://www.egyankosh.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/25006/1/Unit1.pdf

By Christian Lizeth Zepeda

1.- A type of education, typically college-level, where students work on their own at home or at the office and communicate with faculty and other students via e-mail, electronic forums, videoconferencing, chat rooms, bulletin boards, instant messaging and other forms of computer-based communication.

Most distance learning programs include a computer-based training (CBT) system and communications tools to produce a virtual classroom. Because the Internet and World Wide Web are accessible from virtually all computer platforms, they serve as the foundation for many distance learning systems.

http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/D/distance_learning.html
2.- Distance education, or distance learning, is a field of education that focuses on the pedagogy, technology, and instructional system designs that aim to deliver education to students who are not physically “on site”. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, it “is a process to create and provide access to learning when the source of information and the learners are separated by time and distance, or both.”[1] In other words, distance learning is the process of creating an educational experience of equal qualitative value for the learner to best suit their needs outside the classroom. Distance education courses that require a physical on-site presence for any reason including the taking of examinations is considered to be a hybrid or blended course of study. This emerging technology is becoming widely used in universities and institutions around the globe. With the recent trend of technological advance, distance learning is becoming more recognized for its potential in providing individualized attention and communication with students internationally. The most widely cited pedagogical theory of distance education is that of “transactional distance” [2].
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distance_education
3.- California Distance Learning Project: What is Distance Learning?
The California Distance Learning Project’s definition is: “Distance Learning (DL) is an instructional delivery system which connects learners with educational resources. DL provides educational access to learners not enrolled in educational institutions and can augment the learning opportunities of current students. The implementation of DL is a process which uses available resources and will evolve to incorporate emerging technologies.”
http://www.uwex.edu/disted/definition.cfm

By Eber Natan Toris

Distance Education

Distance education is defined, for the purposes of accreditation review, as a formal educational process in which the majority of the instruction occurs when student and instructor are not in the same place. Instruction may be synchronous or asynchronous. Distance education may employ correspondence study, or audio, video, or computer technologies. The Commission on Colleges, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools 1866 Southern Lane

Decatur, Georgia 30033-4097, Distance Education: Definition and principles. A policy statement. Available in http://www.nova.edu/ocean/disted/sacs_distance.pdf

Teaching and learning in which learning normally occurs in a different place from teaching. Michael G. Moore and Kay Shattuck. World Campus Faculty Resources.  Glossary of Distance Education Terms. Available in https://courses.worldcampus.psu.edu/public/faculty/DEGlossary.shtml

A form of education that is conducted over a distance.  Often the instructors and students rarely if ever see each other.  Examples of distance education are online education, telecourses, and hybrid courses. Black River Technical College. Distance Education Glossary. Available in http://de.blackrivertech.org/FAQs/Glossary.htm

By Raquel Gallegos

What is Distance Education?

Courses that are taught at a distance using educational technology are referred to as distance education classes.

Distance Education is characterized by:

  Physical and/or time separation of the student and the instructor during the majority of class

  The use of educational technology to bring together the student and instructor and to transmit course content

  Two-way communication between the instructor and student (Verduin and Clark, 1991)

http://www.boisestate.edu/distance/whatis.shtml

What is Distance Education?

Within a context of rapid technological change and shifting market conditions, the American education system is challenged with providing increased educational opportunities without increased budgets. Many educational institutions are answering this challenge by developing distance education programs. At its most basic level, distance education takes place when a teacher and student(s) are separated by physical distance, and technology (i.e., voice, video, data, and print), often in concert with face-to-face communication, is used to bridge the instructional gap. These types of programs can provide adults with a second chance at a college education, reach those disadvantaged by limited time, distance or physical disability, and update the knowledge base of workers at their places of employment.

http://uidaho.edu/eo/dist1.html

Distance Education

Off-campus education, also known as distance education or external study, provides an opportunity for you to study if you are unable to attend university due to work, family commitments or other reasons.

Distance education allows you to arrange your study around your work and family commitments. Your understanding of the subjects you are studying will be enhanced by access to online units, CDROMs, DVDs, text books and other reference material. Support and communication between lecturers and students is available via email, online discussions and chat, telephone, and on campus intensive schools. UNE provides web-based facilities which allow you to send questions, submit assignments, order library books, check your grades and access other resources, 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

http://www.une.edu.au/about/off-campus-ed/

By Tanya Pedraza

On line Education:

Definition #1

The Garrison and Shale definition of distance education (1987a, p. 10-11) offers a minimum set of criteria and allows more flexibility. They suggest that:

  • Distance education implies that the majority of educational communication between teacher and student occurs non contiguously
  • Distance education involves two-way communication between teacher and student for the purpose of facilitating and supporting the educational process
  • Distance education uses technology to mediate the necessary two-way communication.

Garrison & Shale (1987) IPSE Research in Distance Education by Michael Jeffries. Assistant Director of Educational Services, IHETS. Available in:

http://www.digitalschool.net/edu/DL_history_mJeffries.html

Definition #2

  • The separation of teacher and learner during at least a majority of each instructional process.
  • The use of educational media to unite teacher and learner and carry course content.
  • The provision of two-way communication between teacher, tutor, or educational agency and learner.

Task Force on Distance Education, 1992. “Report of the Task Force on Distance Education,” The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, November. Published electronically in DEOSNEWS 3:7 and 3:8 (July 1993, August 1993) Available in: http://www.studyoverseas.com/distance/distance1.htm

Definition #3

Is a learning experience delivered via a computer and the Internet. Course work is conducted through electronic forums, discussion groups, external resources, quizzes, social rooms, and online submitted assignments. Learning activities also include pairwork, small group work and project work and throughout the course you have the guidance of one of our professional online tutors.

British Council Available in:

http://www.britishcouncil.org/turkey-english-teacher-training-online-what-is-online-learning.htm

By Rosa Carrizales

What is distance education?

Courses that are taught at a distance using educational technology are referred to as distance education classes.

Online Journal of What is distance education?. Available in

http://www.boisestate.edu/distance/whatis.shtml

What is Distance Education?

Within a context of rapid technological change and shifting market conditions, the American education system is challenged with providing increased educational opportunities without increased budgets. Many educational institutions are answering this challenge by developing distance education programs. At its most basic level, distance education takes place when a teacher and student(s) are separated by physical distance, and technology (i.e., voice, video, data, and print), often in concert with face-to-face communication, is used to bridge the instructional gap. These types of programs can provide adults with a second chance at a college education, reach those disadvantaged by limited time, distance or physical disability, and update the knowledge base of workers at their places of employment.

Online Journal of DISTANCE EDUCATION AR A GLANCE GUIDE:1 Distance Education: An Overview. Available in http://uidaho.edu/eo/dist1.html

What is distance education?

Distance education is instruction that occurs when the instructor and student are separated by distance or time, or both. A wide array of technologies are currently used to link the instructor and student. Courses are offered via videotape, broadcast television, ITFS (instructional television fixed service), microwave, satellite, interactive video, audio tapes, audioconferencing, CD-ROM, and, increasingly, computer networking—including e-mail, the Internet, and its World Wide Web.

Online Journal of What distance learners need to know. What is distance education?. Available in http://www.wcet.info/resources/publications/conguide/conguida.htm

What is distance education?

Distance education, also called distance learning, has existed for centuries. It involves obtaining knowledge outside of the traditional avenues of attendance at learned institutions. Some recent definitions have focused on it as a new development, involving advanced technology. A few have even sought to define it in terms of a single technology ¯ usually the one they are reviewing or marketing. (North 1993) Others have viewed it simply as a recent extension of the classroom environment into a remote location. (Long dist tech 1990) Such definitions have proven too restrictive and fail to recognize the actual needs of distance education users or providers.

Online Journal of The Evolution of Distance Learning. Available in http://sqzm14.ust.hk/distance/distance-1.html

What is distance education?

Distance education, flexible learning or study by correspondence offer the opportunity to undertake a course of study while balancing other commitments. This mode of study means that you can undertake a course of study without having to attend lectures ‘on campus’. You can study from home or in a remote area without having to relocate. You can be a part time or full time student. You may choose to do your entire course by distance education or choose to do some by distance and a component face to face.

Online Journal of Distance education & flexible learning delivery. Available in
http://www.goingtouni.gov.au/Main/CoursesAndProviders/GettingStarted/DistanceEducationFlexibleLearningDelivery/Default.htm

By Karla Campino

Distance Learning is when coursework occurs outside the standard classroom. Generally, professor and student are separated by geography. Coursework, lectures, class discussions, and testing is accomplished through a variety of media, including DVDs, Web Cams, Television and Radio broadcasts, and more.
available on http://www.distancelearninginfo.com/
Distance learning occurs when there is a separation between the instructor and the student, usually due to geographical or time concerns that prevent the student from attending an on-campus course. Often, electronic means are used to bridge this gap and distribute educational material though distance learning programs using printed and mailed materials have existed for well over a hundred years. These programs have usually been specially designed to help best meet the needs and requirements that arise when learning is taking place outside of a traditional classroom setting.
available on http://www.distancelearningnet.com/what-is-distance-learning/
Distance education brings together students and teachers separated by geographical distance.  Many distance education programs operate online, allowing quality student-teacher interaction through live forums, chat, and e-mail. available on http://www.distance-education.org/

By Karina Olguin

Definition I: distance education as a means for educational institutions to survive in an economically difficult environment:

Acording to Kirkpatrick and Jakupec (1999) distance education is where  “providing […] flexible learning environments meets the needs of adult learners and at the same time delivers education providers and effective means of survival in an increasingly competitive marketplace”. (, cited on Maddux, Ewing-Taylor & LaMont Johnson, 2002 p. 10).

Definition II: distance education as a merge of education with communicational technologies:

Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century, advances in technology have provided people with the means for a new form of education, known today as distance education. In recent decades the wondrous array of electronic communications technology has given distance education new status. It seems to have something to offer almost everyone” (Harry, John & Keegan, 2003, p. 1)

Definition III:

“Distance education is defined as institution-based, formal education where the learning group is separated, and where interactive telecommunications systems are used to connect learners, resources, and instructors (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek 2006a, cited on Schlosser, Simonson, 2006, p. 1).

Three concepts related to distance education:

I. Adaptive hypermedia: using a user profile or other means to identify what the user’s specific needs are, and then adapting the media to address that user’s needs, For example, adaptive hypermedia might provide text scaled to different reading levels or images that provide a localized example of a learning concept (Schlosser, Simonson, 2006, p. 31).

II. ALN: Asynchronous Learning Network: A form of distance learning that uses computer-networking technology, especially the Internet, for instructional activities (Schlosser, Simonson, 2006, p. 33).

III. Baud: A unit for measuring the digital transmission speed of any data. One baud equals one bit per second. 300 baud is low while 33,600 baud is fast. (2) The transmission rate at which data flows between computers, it is synonymous with bits per second (bps) (Schlosser, Simonson, 2006, p. 35).

Maddux, C. D., Ewing-Taylor, J., LaMont Johnson, D. (2002). Distance education, issues and concerns. Retrieved from <http://books.google.com.mx/books?id=zF6zFSpgGrgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=distance+education&client=firefox-a&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false&gt;

Harry, K., John, M., Keegan, D. (2003). Distance education: new perspectives. Retrieved from <http://books.google.com.mx/books?id=H1NaRyk4yikC&printsec=frontcover&dq=distance+education&client=firefox-a&cd=2#v=onepage&q=&f=false&gt;

Schlosser, L. A., Simonson, M. (2006). Distance education, definitions and glossary of terms. Retrieved from: <http://books.google.com.mx/books?id=Vf4ayMDBnFEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=distance+education&client=firefox-a&cd=3#v=onepage&q=&f=false&gt;

Some minor definitions:

*I call the following definitions minimal because they are too broad and do not really give any information, the mayor definitions are the ones in the first part, that are from published sources and not from glossaries.

Credit-granting education or training courses delivered to remote (off-campus) location(s) via audio, video, or computer technologies, such as the …
www.usnews.com/articles/education/e-learning/2008/01/10/elearn-glossary.html

A formal learning activity which occurs when students and instructor are separated by geographic distance or by time, often supported by communications technology such as television, videotape, computers, email, mail, or interactive videoconferencing.
www.netnet.org/students/student%20glossary.htm

Educational situation in which the instructor and students are separated by time, location, or both. Education or training courses are delivered to remote locations via synchronous or asynchronous means of instruction, including written correspondence, text, graphics, audio- and videotape, CD …
www3.imperial.ac.uk/ict/services/teachingandresearchservices/elearning/aboutelearning/elearningglossary

By Ruben Vasquez

1st definition.

“Distance education is defined as institutional-based, formal education where the learning group is separated, and where interactive telecommunications systems are used to connect learners, resources, and instructors,” (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright & Zvacek, 2006, p. 32).

http://edrev.asu.edu/reviews/rev546.htm

2nd definition.

Distance education means instruction in which the instructor and student are separated by distance and interact through the assistance of communication technology.

http://cms.cerritos.edu/ic/de-standards#I

3rd definition.

Distance education is defined as all credit and non-credit education and training activities that are delivered via any electronic means.

http://www.sdbor.edu/euc/definition.htm

By Maria LuisaVelazco

Distance learning gives you the flexibility to design your studies to suit your needs. Whether you are looking to launch your career with one of our professionally accredited degrees or expand your horizons through single subject study, CSU allows you to balance an online supported education around your work, your family and your lifestyle.

Charles Sturt University  (2010)http://www.csu.edu.au/study/distance-education/.

Distance education allows you to arrange your study around your work and family commitments. Your understanding of the subjects you are studying will be enhanced by access to online units, CDROMs, DVDs, text books and other reference material.

UNE university (2009)  http://www.une.edu.au/about/off-campus-ed/.

Distance education is simple enough: Students and teachers are separated by distance and sometimes by time. This contrast with the ancient tutorial in which a teacher and an individual learner met at the same time and place and the more familiar contemporary model of instruction in a class room, where a teacher talks to a group of learners, all together at the same time in the same place.

Michael G. Moore and Greg K. (2005) http://www.amazon.com/Distance-Education-Michael-G-Moore/dp/0534264964#reader_0534264964.

By Zenia Lopez

Distance education. The type of education where the instructor and the students are in physically separate locations. It can be either synchronous or asynchronous, and can include correspondence, video or satellite broadcasts, or e-Learning. It usually implies the higher education level.

http://www.justcolleges.com/elearn/glossary.htm

Distance education. A mode of education where tudents study off campus using University study materials and are not required to attend regular lectures, tutorials, seminars, laboratory or practical classes but residential schools or other specific attendance’s may be prescribed.

http://www.csu.edu.au/division/student-admin/glossary.htm

Distance education. A planned teaching/learning experience that uses a wide spectrum of technologies to reach learners at a distance and is designed to encourage learner interaction and certification of learning.

http://www.uwex.edu/ics/design/glossary.htm

By Michelle Ruiz Avila

Definitions:

counselors

Specialists in learning who help individual students with academic or personal problems that interfere with learning. In North American institutions the term “advisor” is more commonly used. Quite often course instructors are required to provide advising.

G. Moore & Shattuck (2001) Distance Education Terms. Pennsylvania State University
https://courses.worldcampus.psu.edu/public/faculty/DEGlossary.shtml
curriculum model

The structure in which a program of study is offered. Distance education courses of study are divided into either a subject-matter-oriented curriculum model or a competency-oriented model. The distinction is an important consideration for design, delivery, and assessment. (See Inglis, Ling, & Joosten (1999) p. 69)

G. Moore & Shattuck (2001) Distance Education Terms. Pennsylvania State University
https://courses.worldcampus.psu.edu/public/faculty/DEGlossary.shtml

learner autonomy

“Concept that learners have different capacities for making decisions regarding their own learning.” Relates to the structure and interactive expectations of a distance education course. A key element in adult learning. (See Moore & Kearsley (1996) pp. 24-25, 204-205)

G. Moore & Shattuck (2001) Distance Education Terms. Pennsylvania State University
https://courses.worldcampus.psu.edu/public/faculty/DEGlossary.shtml

By Adan Insulnsa

Activity 2

Summary

The interactions between learners, teacher and content are the basis for this model; learners can independently interact directly with content found in multiple formats (e. g. the Web), but many prefer a teacher structured sequential model. This interaction can take place within a community with the same objective by using Net-based activities. These two environments allow fro the development of some social skills. The second model illustrates the structured learning tools associated with independent learning (although, the student is not completely by himself). Work mates, peers, and family members support and assist e-learning. By tracing the interactions expected and provided for learners through the model, one can plan for and ensure that an appropriate mix of student, teacher, and content interaction is designed for each learning outcome, because specific activities can promote specific learning.

Online Learning and the Semantic Web

When the language used in digital documents is computer friendly, it can be manipulated by both humans and computer entities in more efficient ways. The Semantic Web promotes adaptation of content by supporting a proper administration of digitized content. Information from the Semantic Web can provide an S-S, S-T, and S-Content environment that is ideal for internet based distance learning.

Activity 3

a ) Which mode of electronic communication will be most important to me as an e-tutor?

It is difficult to choose one mode of electronic communication, because in terms of pragmatism, each mode functions differently and thus will be suited for different situations. But to answer this question the answer must be based entirely on e-tutor preferences.

Answering from experiences, I think that the modes of electronic communication that function most effectively are the asynchronomous modes, because they have the reliability of stating that they have been received (as it is the case of some e-mail servers that indicate when a message arrives), and have, also, the advantage of being reproduced or review as many times as necessary. This, in turns, states the main problem in synchronized e-communication, since many things can interfere in the delivery of the message (e. g. spontaneously loose the connection to the server, interference in audio or video, etc.).

From my experiences on video and audio-conferencing, I think that in terns of e-learning is not that reliable, since the process of note taking becomes more difficult, since there are two mental processes involved in one instrument (listening to the computer, and typing on the computer), whereas the classroom model utilizes two instruments (listening to the teacher, taking notes on the notebook).

Having mentioned these points, I would say that the most important mode of electronic communication is the e-mail service.

b ) Some emoticons:

-.-“ feeling sorry for someone else.

‘~’ feeling guilt.

=) happy.

=0 surprised.

=9 finding something to be tasteful.

o3o kiss.

*o* astonished.

ò_ó angry.

ü _ü sad.
an experience:

Oi vei!, difficulties with e-learning; well, not exactly about e-learning, but e-working with my e-mates on a e-course can be quite difficult. Last semester was the first time that I took an e-course, and we were supposed to work on teams, so, I found a e-teammate and started e-working with her (and I italicized e-working, because I was doing all the tasks). At some point she dropped off from the course and I was working solo now ò_ó!!! (solo is also a word in English, who would have said). But luckily I integrated to another team and we worked like a charm. *o* !!!!

c ) a) Never copy on an e-mail without asking and receiving p——–n from the originator of the message (permission).

b) Be careful with titles. Choose a s—-t effective title for your message (short).

c) When replying to someone’s message, use the same t—e if the topic remains the same, otherwise start a new thread with a n-w title (title, new).

d) Keep to one t—c per message with a relevant title. It’s best to send several short messages with different titles than one long one covering many subjects (topic).

e) If you reply to just one part of someone’s message, c–y and p—e their words into the start of your message, so it’s clear which section you refer to (copy, paste).

f) Ensure that you place new messages in the a———e conference (appropriate).

g) Keep all messages short – never more than one s—–n. If you have something longer to say, attach it as a document (screen).

E-MAIL:

To: julia_garcia@yahoo.com.mx

Cc: rudi78@hotmail.com,carmen2@aol.com,risitas82@yahoo.com

Subject: lesson plan

Date: 20/03 /04

Hi Julia,

Sorry but I don´t agree with your idea (1) about making students take an English

test to be able to register for an online course. I think motivation is more

important than your level of English. You make mistakes in your messages

but you are benefiting from the course, aren´t you? Communication is more

important than accuracy (3).

Another thing, Rudi and Carmen (2) – did you do the reading e-tivity for unit 2

yet? Can we compare answers?

Bye,

Daniel R.

1. the style of the message is tremendously hurtful, it seems that the intention of the writer is to insult the recipient instead of making a constructive comment.

2. Daniel R. addresses two other persons in the same mail, implying that this hurtful comment was also sent to other e-mates.

3. On the last part this person seems to be attacking the recipient’s beliefs about teaching and learning.

CONFERENCE POSTING:

29 March

From: Aurora H.

Subject:re. (1)

I think your right (2). If you want to that´s what you should do. Someone else

said last week “ I felt quite threatened when one participant from this group

disagreed with me.” So I´m agree! Anyway, you know they say that when

God created man She was only joking!!:) <hahahahahah> (3)

Aurora

  1. misspelling.
  2. indicates a comment but it is not stated clearly on what does she agree.
  3. highly inappropriate!!! A sexist comment on an educational session.

Activity 4

Plan to develop an on line course

Make a course interesting for the School administration:

The course should be based on one hand on how it will work according to the school philosophy and how much it requires (in terms of work hours) to be developed.

Course Rationale (Richards, p. 145):

Every course should start with a course rationale, where it is specified what is going to be taught to whom and the conditions on which learning will take place. This part is fundamental in the sense that all courses should start at se same point: to focus a given content on a given learning body[1].

Course Content:

A specialized body should be commissioned to develop a course, who will decide what will be included, working with the advice of a pedagogical body. E-course material should be student-friendly, since material difficult to manage or difficult to find detracts time from that expected from the students (See below, on this example, if a student spends half an hour to find the course material, this means a 4, 500 word deficit caused by poor material selection).

Course face:

There should always be a way to contact the course administrator or teacher.

Course Platform:

The best way to make a course is not necessarily to use the state-of-the-art technology, but to use that which is most easily available, that it costs less and that is flexible. Other criteria necessary for an efficient platform is that it aids Student-teacher, and other types of interaction to take place. The type of platform and its friendliness impacts directly on the students’ motivation, so it is necessary to think in terms of how human a platform can be.

Assessment criteria:

Assessment criteria should be given to the students at the beginning of the course, and the teacher should make sure that all students read it and make questions on it before the course can continue.

Course Etiquette:

Guidelines set to prevent inappropriate student behavior, thinking on how to prevent plagiarism and rudeness (and other aspects).

Time management:

On the Students’ time: New software has enabled us the ability to count the words in a text, and research has showed that effective student can be able to process 200 to 300 words per minutes when reading thoroughly, and approximately 700 words when scanning. Depending on the number of hours that should be devoted to a course the designer can benefit from this technology to generate well administrated courses. In a course that is designed for 6 scheduled hours and 2 study hours, a student would be expected to read at maximum 144, 000 words, minus time devoted on making assignments, which instantly detracts 2 hours (study hours; in reality, when working with virtuous students, at maximum they would read as a maximum 100, 000 words during the course of a week, this is equivalent to 40 pages on average). Further consideration on this topic should be made, thinking on the average student who needs to work on average on six courses, if loaded to the max, it would be necessary of them to read as much as 240 pages a week, plus course assignments (which is the equivalent of a novel each week. If this scenario was applied on a year, an average student would read 57 to 60 book a week, a tremendous effort given the cultural background of many students).

When adding materials such as video or audio, the duration of the format multiplied by three, considering that some materials need to be reproduced more than once, as an example, if a video that is 5 minutes long is included as a course material, depending on how much information it contains it might be needed to be reproduced as much as 5 times, meaning that the necessary time to process it is as little as 20 minutes (in other words, 12, 000 words less that should be included in the course of a week). This principle about calculating time I call E-course word economy.

On the teacher’s time: The quantity of assignments given to the students should be planned depending on the expected size of the group. Given the same principle, a group of 40 students producing a two pages essay would take the teacher at minimum 6 hours of extra work (this is only to read the essays, in order to grade them a minimum of two reading should take place, meaning that the teacher would spend twice the time to manage one assignment than the time that a student needs to course one week).

In order to make doubt solving more efficient, the course should provide a FAQ section, and clear instructions of solving doubts should take place in forums, where students can navigate on information that might help to solve their doubts.

When pondering these aspects we can develop the following diagram:

Justify the course (both in terms of learning and lending administrative benefits).

Present it to the administration.

Work with an academic body to decide on content considering students necessities.

Define an e-friendly pedagogy, thinking on different ways that student use to learn.

Develop a platform, or create the course on an existing platform.

Set Assessment criteria.

Set e-course etiquette.

The core of an online course development team might comprise as few as five key roles: SME or author, graphic designer, Web developer, programmer, and instructional designer.

Activity 5:

Blackboard is the only platform that I have used. Its distinctive features (or characteristics) are the menu and the thumbnails that guides you though the site, similar to a fractal network¹. It resembles a social network like Myspace™ or Tagged™ because when the user accesses the server, it directs him/her to a page that contains general information of interest to the user (such as recent activities and contacts, on the social networks, or announcements or the catalog of courses in Blackboard Academic Suit™, and the left side menu that provide information specific to each course). This similarity to social network sites might have a positive effect on the student’s motivation, perceiving the courses more as a laissez faire² based dynamic one that a strictly teacher guided course. But one of the most important disadvantages is that, unlike those mentioned social networks, blackboard is not as efficient in reminding the student of activities or tasks near to expire³. Other important features included in this platform are the forums (which work great for both students and instructor, since all the information regarding an activity is concentrated in on page), the course information (which serves as a declaration of the course’s nature), access to the course’s documents and a way to contact the instructor. Reviewing the disadvantages, the problem relies on the departmentalization of the course’s structure. Since all the pieces that make the course are divergent, each piece creating its own vector that can be lost of sight at any moment. In order to make this structure work there needs to be a driving principle that creates cohesion among the different parts of the system.

-R. Vasquez

___

¹By Fractal network I intend to describe a system that ramifies in somewhat proportional ways, to make a mental image, let us conceive it as the growth of a tree’s branches.

² I apply this economic concept based upon the assumption that a course is an economical system by itself, in the sense that we as students need to know how to manage our resources in order to make a course in the best possible way. Now, applying the concept of the laissez faire (which basically means let it be), would mean that the student is able to do as he pleases (explore the platform and used it as best suited) in the course just as long as long as h does not abuse morally of his/her peers or instructor.

³This can be in some degree beneficial because we might expect t hat it would develop the student’s independence, but in most of the cases it could work against him/her, because on in not devoted only to one course or one activity.

Activity 6

E-tivity 1        The Whys of E-tivity Design               :

Step 1:

Principles for an e-tivity

The following information was obtained from a webpage called Englishpage.com; this webpage provides lessons for both, EFL and ESL learners.

http://www.englishpage.com/conditional/conditional1.htm

Step 2:

Principles for a communicative Language task

  1. Does the task have a value beyond language learning? I don’t think it does, sentences are well structured, and although they provide an every-day setting, they are out of context, therefore no valuable message is promoted.
  2. Are students personally involved? No, this exercise is already structured and only provides two choices that are already given for the students to choose from.
  3. Is the student’s personal contribution significant? Maybe, I think it truly depends on the value the student gives to him/her self. Because the answers are already written and the user only chooses from a pair of options, this could eventually make the student feel unchallenged. But if we analyze this specific activity in terms of value, it is too controlled to lend some.
  4. Is the content worth learning about? Yes, when someone is determined to learn a language, every part of speech (in this case) is relevant. In this particular exercise, conditionals always seem to be a problem for the majority of English learners.
  5. Are the students engaged intellectually? I don’t think that this e-tivity is intellectually challenging for learners, the main reason is because the responses are already given, and the only thing that the user needs to do is choose between If or When. If the activity was structured the other way around, where a setting and the option to use if or when in a writing activity, then there would be a formal challenge that would promote the intellect’s engaging.
  6. Will the task produce a unique classroom? Definitely not. There is not a possibility for a unique response. The over controlled structure of the exercise is sterile.
  7. Does the task contribute to a coherent lesson? Yes, this is actually the first exercise of a series of activities, which involve both the types of conditional sentences; it also follows up the tenses used for the proper conditional.
  8. Does it foster autonomy? This is a highly controlled activity, I don’t see how, in the website, users could practice autonomy learning; however I do believe that, if the student is highly motivated, he/she could take information from this activity and take it to every day speech.

Step 3:

Proposal for online activity principles

  1. Does the activity show evidence of the reviewed topic?

Obviously an activity is a conclusion or practice for a specific topic but, does the task assess the most important aspects of the lesson? Every task should be significant in relation to the studied lesson. But should not stop at only achieving significance to the lesson, it should, in principle aim to achieve significance in the student’s learning experience.

  1. Does the activity promote critical thinking?

Task should promote the learners understanding of the exercise, the context in which the activity is placed and most of all the internalization of the information used in the exercise. Based on this principle, those activities which require only to fill in blanks are not as meaningful as those which require creating something from scratch.

  1. Does the activity reflect the learner’s interest?

Although it might be difficult to personalize each activity, there are several technological tools that make more significant the information for a particular group of learners. This point signals the importance of contextualizing e-tivities.

  1. Does the task provide a sense of achievement?
    This will be important from a motivational point of view; some students need more detailed feedback for their performance than others, and will not be satisfied by a pop-up that can only provide a perceptual result.

    1. Is the e-tivity cost efficient?
      Within this principle we are reflecting upon how much time is needed to be spending on an activity (to think on the value of someone’s time). To this principle another question might be: is this activity worth my time?

E-tivity 2           The Whats of E-Tivity Design         :

Name of e-tivity Conditional Exercise 1 If/When
Purpose Practice the use of If or When in conditional clauses.
Spark This e-tivity does not include one (The whole lesson, which is solely based on the grammatical point), But a good way of creating a spark would be to introduce the activity with a text that talked about hopes and dreams.
How many participants In this activity there is only one participant, the student (The teacher, if there is one, is passive, since the exercises are programmed to be self evaluated).
Structure: The student completes the exercise by himself; feedback is given automatically upon concluding it (Individual reponce).
E-lapsed time needed: 20 minutes
E-tutor actions: 15 minutes (if the tutor receives feedback from the activity, his responsibility would be to solve doubts).
Participant time: 15 minutes (to answer, and 5 to correct).
Participant actions: To choose the adequate answer.
How evaluated? The activity gives a percentage of right answers, asking the student to reflect until all are right.

E-tivity 3                        Sparks                            :

What particular reaction did we get from this spark? Well, at first it puts in a whole the physical settings on which we live, and then it transmits it to the interior world of our thoughts, making the theory or the macrocosm and microcosm to burst in our minds with, by it self, into start reflecting upon it. In a sense it signals a Maslowian way to see how our ways of thinking have evolved, from being first external and evident, and then transferring to internal and ontological.

What we are trying to state in the previous paragraph is that the spark caused us to reflect upon it, fending totally on its point. We think that that peculiarity makes this piece especially sparkly.

E-tivity 4               Creating an E-Tivity                 :

1. -A Writing skill oriented English as a foreign language for academic purpose course, for high-intermediate adolescents or young adult students on an online basis.

[purpose]-On this activity students will learn the basis to produce a persuasive paragraph. By the end of the activity, the students will have a well structured paragraph that includes a topic sentence, supporting ideas of persuasive nature and a concluding sentence.

-The spark will be a paragraph persuading students on the importance of persuasive paragraphs, where we enhance the importance of giving reasons instead of just giving commands.

Students will be engaged in five tasks which follow the five steps for writing approach (Brain storm, draft, revise, edit, and publish a final copy, adapted from ezwebsite.org).

Work in pairs, in order to find draw backs and advantages of the topic they choose, It should take them an hour or less to complete the task (ideally it should be done in 20 minutes).

-The teacher will evaluate the products at the end, taking as parameters the following questions: does it follow a paragraph structure? Is it a persuasive paragraph? The use of vocabulary and grammar is adequate?

-During the activity, the teacher should resolve doubts, and at the end give feedback on their work (after the deadline for the task).

Spark: Persuading is an art to get what is suitable for all. Do you remember an occasion where you wanted to go to some place and your parents did not let you? Some times just giving personal reasons for doing something is not enough. Those times when we say “please Dad, my life depends on it, I must go to that concert, it my favorite band!” Just giving reasons does not help. There will always be reasons on the other side that will work against you. This is when we hear “No, you did not do your choirs and yesterday you arrived late!” So, how can we convince our dad? Well, the answer is simple, use persuasion, predict his reasons and use them on your advantage, like this: “I know I haven’t be the best son in the world, and I know that I haven’t done all my choirs lately, and I have been arriving late, but, just for this time, would you let me go? I promise that I’ll try to be a better son…” With a request like that we might have more chances of achieving our objective.

Presentation: As you could see in the previous paragraph, a persuasive paragraph is as others, it has a catch phrase at the beginning, then a topic sentence, supporting sentences and a concluding sentence. But there is a difference! Persuasive paragraphs do not have a narration as the main idea, or a comparison and contrast, or a description. The purpose of a persuasive essay is to convince someone of doing something. For this reason it needs to include the possible points against you, and those in favor of you. The sentence that starts with “‘I know I haven’t be the best […]’” is an example of how persuasion works. Now is your turn!

Task №1: Brain storm: Step 1: Choose a partner and decide on a topic that is of interest to both. Step 2: think of all the good and bad reasons that are related to that topic. Write them in a document divided in two columns.

Task №2: Draft: Step 1: Choose three drawbacks of your topic, and four positive points. Arrange them from the least important to the most important (think strategically! Choose the strongest points on your favor, and those bad points that are neither the most important nor the least). Step 2: write a paragraph separately (in total you will have two paragraphs, one for each one of you).

Task №3: Revise: Step 1: Compare your paragraphs, choose the one that you like the most, and add those sentences from the other one that you might have liked, add them to the selected paragraph where they might help.

Task №4: Edit: Read the paragraph and do not forget to spell-check.

Task №5: Send the paragraph to your tutor’s e-mail or to the mailbox on the platform. Remember to include the columns from task №1, the two drafts from task №2, and the final version.

Name of e-tivity Writing persuasive paragraphs
Purpose To learn and practice the structure of a persuasive paragraph in a meaningful manner in order for it to be applied in persuasive essays.
Spark For this activity the spark is a persuasive paragraph persuading to learn to use persuasion.
How many participants This activity is designed to be done in pairs.
Structure: The spark, presentation, and then five tasks that follow the five steps process (Brain storm, draft, revise, edit, and publish a final copy).
E-lapsed time needed: 60 minutes.
E-tutor actions: 60 minutes.
Participant time: 30 minutes to draft, and 30 to edit.
Participant actions: To write a paragraph using the five steps model.
How evaluated? The tutor will evaluate and grade the paragraphs at the end of the activity, and then he/she will give feedback.

References

ezwebsite.org. The five step writing process. on April 9 from <http://www.ezwebsite


[1] The concept of learning body is one that I had to develop in order for this point to make sense. Basically a learning body is that constituted by a group of students with similar objectives.

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